Lithium battery cylindrical model summary, cylindrical lithium battery knowledge


Cylindrical lithium batteries are divided into different systems of lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, cobalt-manganese mixed, and ternary materials. The shell is divided into two types: steel shell and polymer. Different material systems have different advantages.

Lithium battery cylindrical model summary

Cell model Standard Voltage(V) Standard Capacity(mAh) Charge Temp(℃) Discharge Temp(℃) Charge Current(A) Discharge Current(A)
ICR18650(ternary) 3.7V 2200mAh 0~45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 2.2A(normal temp 1C) 10A(normal temp5C)
ICR18650(ternary) 3.7V 2500mAh 0~45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 2.5A(normal temp1C) 25A(normal temp10C)
ICR18650(ternary) 3.7V 3000mAh 0~45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 3.0A(normal temp1C 15A(normal temp5C)
ICR21700(ternary) 3.7V 4000mAh 0~45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 4.0A(normal temp1C) 40A(normal temp 10C)
NCR18650B(ternary) 3.6V 3350mAh 0~45℃ -20~60℃ 1.625A 4.875A
INR18650-30Q(ternary) 3.6V 3000mAh 0~45℃ -20~75℃ 0.5C 15A
IFR26650(LiFePO4) 3.2V 3200mAh -20℃~+45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 3.2A(normal temp 1C) 10A(normal temp 3C)
IFR32700(LiFePO4) 3.2V 5000mAh -20℃~+45℃ -40℃~+60℃ 5.0A(normal temp 1C) 25A(normal temp 5C)
IFR26650 E3400(LiFePO4) 3.2V 3400mAh 0~60℃ -10~60℃ 2.0V 10.2A

1. What is a cylindrical lithium battery?

1.1 Definition of cylindrical battery

Cylindrical lithium batteries are divided into different systems of lithium iron phosphate, lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganate, cobalt-manganese mixed, and ternary materials. The shell is divided into two types: steel shell and polymer. Different material systems have different advantages. At present, the cylinders are mainly steel-shell cylindrical lithium iron phosphate batteries, which are characterized by high capacity, high output voltage, good charge-discharge cycle performance, stable output voltage, high-current discharge, stable electrochemical performance, and use Safe, wide operating temperature range, environmentally friendly, widely used in solar lamps, lawn lamps, backup energy, power tools, toy models.

1.2 Cylindrical battery structure

The structure of a typical cylindrical battery includes: shell, cap, positive electrode, negative electrode, separator, electrolyte, PTC element, gasket, safety valve, etc. Generally, the battery shell is the negative electrode of the battery, the cap is the positive electrode of the battery, and the battery shell is made of nickel-plated steel plate.

1.3 Advantages of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries

Compared with soft packs and square lithium batteries, cylindrical lithium batteries have the longest development time, higher standardization, more mature technology, high yield and low cost.

· Mature production process, low PACK cost, high battery product yield, and good heat dissipation performance

· Cylindrical batteries have formed a series of internationally unified standard specifications and models, with mature technology and suitable for large-scale continuous production.

· The specific surface area of the cylinder is large, and the heat dissipation effect is good.

· Cylindrical batteries are generally sealed batteries, and there is no maintenance problem during use.

· The battery shell has high pressure resistance, and there will be no swelling of square and soft-packed batteries during use.

1.4 Cylindrical battery cathode material

At present, the mainstream commercial cylindrical battery cathode materials mainly include lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), ternary (NMC), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), etc. The batteries of different material systems have different characteristics. The characteristics are compared as follows:

Item LiCoO2 LiNiCoMnO2 LiMn2O4 LiFePO4
density(g/cm3) 2.8~3.0 2.0~2.3 2.2~2.4 1.0~1.4
surface area(m2/g) 0.4~0.6 0.2~0.4 0.4~0.8 12~20
Gram capacity(mAh/g) 135~140 140~180 90~100 130~140
voltage platform(V) 3.7 3.5 3.8 3.2
Cycle performance ≥500times ≥500times ≥300times ≥2000times
transition metal poor poor rich very rich
Raw material costs very high high low very low
Environmental friendly Cobalt Contains nickel and cobalt non-toxic non-toxic
Safety performance bad ok good very good
Applicable fields Small and medium batteries Small battery/small power battery Power battery, low-cost battery Power battery/super-capacity power supply
advantage Stable charge and discharge, simple production process Stable electrochemical performance and good cycle performance Rich manganese resources, low price and good safety performance High safety, environmental protection, long life
shortcoming Cobalt is expensive and has a low cycle life Cobalt is expensive Low energy density and poor electrolyte compatibility Poor low temperature performance and low discharge voltage

1.5 Cylindrical battery anode material

Cylindrical battery anode materials are roughly divided into six types: carbon anode materials, alloy anode materials, tin-based anode materials, lithium-containing transition metal nitride anode materials, nanoscale materials, and nanoscale anode materials.

Carbon nanoscale materials for anode materials: At present, the anode materials actually used in lithium-ion batteries are basically carbon materials, such as artificial graphite, natural graphite, mesocarbon microspheres, petroleum coke, carbon fiber, pyrolysis resin carbon, etc. .

Alloy-based anode materials: including tin-based alloys, silicon-based alloys, germanium-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, antimony-based alloys, magnesium-based alloys and other alloys, and there are currently no commercial products.

Tin-based negative electrode material: Tin-based negative electrode material can be divided into two types: tin oxide and tin-based composite oxide. Oxides refer to oxides of metal tin in various valence states. There are currently no commercial products.

· Lithium-containing transition metal nitride anode materials, there are currently no commercial products.

· Nanoscale materials: carbon nanotubes, nano-alloy materials.

· Nano anode material: nano oxide material


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Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4) Power Battery

Rated voltage:76.8V

Standard capacity(0.2C5A):200Ah

Continuous discharge current:≤150Ah

Standard charge current:≤150Ah

Cycle Life:≥2000 times/cycles

Max Continuous discharge current:300Ah

Protection level:IP54

Total weight(Approx.):125kg

Charge method (CC/CV): Standard:0℃~45℃ Discharge:-20℃~65℃ Storage:-10℃~50℃

2. Cylindrical lithium battery cells

2.1 Cylindrical lithium-ion battery brand


Cylindrical lithium batteries are more popular among lithium battery companies in Japan and South Korea, and there are also large-scale enterprises in China that produce cylindrical lithium batteries. The earliest cylindrical lithium battery was invented in 1992 by SONY Company of Japan.


Well-known cylindrical lithium-ion battery brands: Sony, Panasonic, Sanyo, Samsung, LG, Wanxiang A123, BAK, Lishen, etc.


2.2 Types of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries


Cylindrical lithium-ion cells are usually represented by five-digit numbers. Counting from the left, the first and second digits refer to the diameter of the battery, the third and fourth digits refer to the height of the battery, and the fifth digit represents a circle. There are many types of cylindrical lithium batteries, the more common ones are 10400, 14500, 16340, 18650, 21700, 26650, 32650, etc.


①10440 battery


The 10440 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 10mm and a height of 44mm. It is the same size as the “AAA battery” we often call it. The battery capacity is generally small, only a few hundred mAh. It is mainly used in mini electronic products. Such as flashlights, mini stereos, amplifiers, etc.


②14500 battery


The 14500 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 14mm and a height of 50mm. This battery is generally 3.7V or 3.2V. The nominal capacity is relatively small, a bit larger than the 10440 battery, generally 1600mAh, with superior discharge performance and the most application field. Mainly consumer electronics, such as wireless audio, electric toys, digital cameras and so on.


③16340 battery


The 16340 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 16mm and a height of 34mm. This kind of battery has a shorter ruler height and a smaller capacity, so it can be used in strong light flashlights, LED flashlights, headlights, laser lights, lighting fixtures, etc. occur frequently.


④18650 battery


The 18650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 18mm and a height of 65mm. Its biggest feature is that it has a very high energy density, almost reaching 170 Wh/kg. Therefore, this battery is a cost-effective battery. We usually often Most of what I see are this kind of battery, because it is a relatively mature lithium battery, and the system quality is stable in all aspects. It is widely used in occasions with a battery capacity of about 10 kWh, such as in mobile phones, laptops and other small appliances. .


⑤21700 battery


The 21700 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 21mm and a height of 70mm. Because its volume increases, the space utilization rate increases, and the energy density of the battery cell and the system can be improved. Its volume energy density is much higher than that of the 18650 battery. It is widely used in digital, electric vehicles, balance vehicles, solar energy lithium battery street lights, LED lights, power tools, etc.


⑥ 26650 battery


The 26650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 26mm and a height of 65mm, with a nominal voltage of 3.2V and a nominal capacity of 3200mAh. This battery has the characteristics of excellent capacity and high consistency, and has gradually become a trend to replace the 18650 battery. In terms of power batteries, many products will gradually favor this.


⑦ 32650 battery


The 32650 battery is a lithium battery with a diameter of 32mm and a height of 65mm. This battery has a strong continuous discharge capacity, so it is more suitable for electric toys, backup power supplies, UPS batteries, wind power generation systems, and wind-solar hybrid power generation systems.


3. Market Development of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries

The technological progress of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries mainly comes from the innovation research and application progress of key battery materials. Through the development of new materials, the battery performance is further improved, the quality is improved, the cost is reduced, and the safety is improved. In order to meet the requirements for improving the specific energy of batteries in downstream applications, on the one hand, materials with high specific capacity can be used, and on the other hand, high-voltage materials can be used by increasing the charging voltage.


Cylindrical lithium-ion batteries have developed from 14500 to Tesla 21700 batteries. In the near and mid-term development, while optimizing the existing lithium-ion power battery technology to meet the needs of large-scale development of new energy vehicles, a new type of lithium-ion power battery will be developed. Focusing on improving its key technologies such as safety, consistency and lifespan, and simultaneously carrying out forward-looking research and development of new system power batteries.


For the medium and long-term development of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries, while continuing to optimize and upgrade new lithium-ion power batteries, focus on research and development of new systems of power batteries, significantly improve specific energy, greatly reduce costs, and realize the practicality and scale of new system power batteries. application.

4. Comparison of cylindrical lithium battery and square lithium battery


4.1 Battery shape: The square size can be arbitrarily designed, while the cylindrical battery cannot be compared.


4.2 Rate characteristics: Due to the technological limitations of welding multi-pole tabs for cylindrical batteries, the rate characteristics are slightly worse than those for square multi-pole batteries.


4.3 Discharge platform: For lithium batteries using the same positive and negative materials and electrolytes, in theory, the discharge platform should be the same, but the discharge platform in the square lithium battery is slightly higher.


4.4 Product quality: The manufacturing process of cylindrical batteries is relatively mature, the probability of secondary slitting defects in the pole pieces is low, and the maturity and automation of the winding process are relatively high. The lamination process is still semi-manual. Quality is adversely affected.


4.5 Welding tabs: The tabs of cylindrical batteries are easier to weld than square lithium batteries; square lithium batteries are prone to false welding and affect the quality of the battery.


4.6 PACK groups: cylindrical batteries are easier to use, so the PACK technology is simple and the heat dissipation effect is good; when the square lithium battery is packed, the heat dissipation problem should be solved.


4.7 Structural features: The chemical activity at the corners of the square lithium battery is poor, the energy density of the battery is easy to decay after long-term use, and the battery life is short.


5. cylindrical lithium battery and soft pack lithium battery comparison


5.1 The safety performance of the soft-pack battery is good. The soft-pack battery is structurally packaged with aluminum-plastic film. When a safety problem occurs, the soft-pack battery will generally burst and crack, instead of exploding like the steel shell or aluminum shell battery; It is better than cylindrical lithium battery in safety performance.


5.2 The weight of the soft pack battery is relatively light, the weight of the soft pack battery is 40% lighter than that of the steel shell lithium battery of the same capacity, and 20% lighter than that of the cylindrical aluminum shell lithium battery; the internal resistance is small, and the internal resistance of the soft pack battery is smaller than that of the lithium battery. It can greatly reduce the self-consumption of the battery;


5.3 The soft pack battery has good cycle performance, the soft pack battery has a longer cycle life, and the 100-cycle decay is 4% to 7% less than that of the cylindrical aluminum shell battery;


5.4 The design of the soft-pack battery is flexible, the shape can be changed to any shape, and it can be thinner. It can be customized according to the needs of customers, and new battery models can be developed. The cylindrical lithium battery does not have this condition.


5.5 Compared with cylindrical lithium batteries, soft pack batteries have the disadvantages of poor consistency, high cost, and easy leakage. The high cost can be solved by large-scale production, and the leakage of liquid can be solved by improving the quality of the aluminum-plastic film.

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